SOC Medium is a nutrient rich medium for the preparation and transformation of competent cells. The transformation requires perforation of the bacteria to allow the introduction of alien DNA inside the cell. In order to survive this process the competent cells need an isotonic rich medium. Peptone provides nitrogen, vitamins, minerals and amino acids essential for growth. Yeast extract is source of vitamins, particularly the B-group. Sodium chloride and Potassium chloride supplies essential electrolytes for transport and osmotic balance. Magnesium sulfate is a source of magnesium ions. Glucose is used as a carbon and energy source that E. coli uses to repair the perforation as well as for replication.
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