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King A Medium (Pseudomonas P Agar) is prepared according to the formula described by King et al. for the detection and differentiation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from other Pseudomonas based on pyocyanin production. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a free-living bacterium, present in soil and water. It has become more and more known as an emerging opportunistic pathogen of clinical importance. Various different epidemiological studies track its occurrence as a nosocomial pathogen and claim that antibiotic resistance is increasing in clinical isolates. This medium promotes the production of pyocyanin, a blue-green pigment which oxidizes to brown, is water-soluble and, unlike fluorescein, is soluble in chloroform. The pigment diffuses throughout the medium and the blue color is observed. Confirmation of pyocyanin production is by chloroform extraction. Add 2 ml of chloroform to a tube of medium and shake gently to remove pigment. This medium contains pancreatic digest of gelatin as a rich nitrogen source, and other nutrients for growth as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. Gelatin peptone is low in phosphorous to reduce the inhibitory action on pyocyanin production. Potassium sulfate and Magnesium chloride provide cations to activate pyocyanin production and enhance pigment production. Glycerol is a carbon source. Bacteriological agar is the solidifying agent.
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