2xYT Agar is a nutritionally rich growth medium recommended for the optimal growth of recombinant strains of E. coli on agar plates. This medium is also used for propagation of M13 bacteriophage or other fibrous bacteriophages for sequencing and phage display. Bacteriophages are viruses that can only infect and replicate within bacteria. In many cases, these are very specific relationships. Somatic coliphages specifically infect Escherichia coli and in water indicate contamination by human or animal faeces or by wastewater containing such material. Tryptone and yeast extract are the sources for carbon, nitrogen, vitamins, minerals, and amino acids essential for growth, as well as growth factors that allow phages to reproduce without weakening the host cells. Sodium chloride supplies essential electrolytes for transport and osmotic balance. Many supplements, including antibiotics, are heat-sensitive and cannot be autoclaved. These should be filter-sterilized and added to the medium after it has cooled down and prior to solidification. Escherichia coli growth faster on the enrichment medium as provide aminoacid, nucleotide precursors, vitamins and other metabolite which in another way it should be synthesized by the cell.
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