Modified Scholten's Broth is an enrichment medium for bacteriophages and is used for its detection and enumeration. Bacteriophages are viruses that can only infect and replicate within bacteria. In many cases, these are very specific relationships. Somatic coliphages specifically infect Escherichia coli and in water indicate contamination by human or animal faeces or by wastewater containing such material. They provide a rapid and simple method of determining faecal pollution in environmental waters. The ability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to induce cellular damage leading to disease in humans is related to numerous virulence factors, most notably the stx gene, encoding Shiga toxin (stx) and carried by a bacteriophage. Stx is thought to be responsible for the most severe form of the infection causing the life-threatening hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). MSB is used in the preparation of stock, working and inoculum cultures, to rehydrate and enrich the host. The result of the infection is lysis of the cell and the production of visible plaques (clear zones).
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